Haccp is the most basic food safety standard that should be applied in all food businesses, especially in the prepared food industry. We say “need to be implemented” because, according to the Food Hygiene Regulation, the implementation of the Haccp standard is a legal obligation.
Both food scientists and engineers played a role in the emergence of Haccp. Aiming to make space studies more effective than they are, scientists have searched for the most ideal nutrition and food methods for the next planned space flight. Afterwards, these methods were used for testing purposes in the arms industry. Over time, Haccp has taken its place in both food standards and laws.
Haccp is a standard that prevents compromising food safety and has a guiding feature for this. In line with this standard, food is produced and served in a hygienic and safe manner. Thus, healthy and good food production is ensured. Any food business should have started its activities by establishing the Haccp team and system, even when it is still in the establishment phase. After installation, problems are identified and analyzed regarding what kind of hazards the product may be exposed to in its occurrence. This product embarks on a safe journey in the process from receiving the goods to shipment. It is very important that the produced food does not undergo any deterioration until the time it is consumed, after it reaches the end consumer. Because these deteriorations can threaten human health. In this sense, the correct application of Haccp principles is also of vital importance in terms of chemical, physical, biological, allergen, adulteration and sabotage risks against possible disease risks.
The Haccp principles, the number of which has been determined as 7, is a complete guide. (The 7 principles are the basics, but there are also 5 preparatory steps before them). So what are the principles of Haccp?
1. Managing Hazard Analysis
It is determined what kind of dangers may occur during the production and processing stages of the food to be produced and it is clarified what kind of precautions can be taken to prevent these possible dangers. Then, by including certain mathematical values in the evaluation phase, it is determined how to control the food and how to keep it safe.
2. Determination of Critical Control Points (CCP)
The hazards have been identified, now it's time to decide whether these hazards are critical control point (CCP), prerequisite program (OGP), or operational prerequisite program (OOGP). While making these decisions, Haccp uses the decision tree diagram. This scheme contains 4 questions and the answers to the 4 questions guide the determination of the hazard as KKN, OGP or OOGP.
3. Determination of Critical Limits
Measurements made at the control point show which product is safe and which is unsafe. Here, the lowest-highest limits are determined and these limits are the limits that can directly affect human health.
4. Monitoring Critical Control Points
Now that the critical limits have been determined, it's time to monitor critical control points. At this stage, critical control points are monitored and controlled.
5. Identification of Corrective and Preventive Actions
While the stages are being completed sequentially, it should be determined beforehand what kind of solutions should be applied and what precautions should be taken in the face of any problem that arises in the Haccp application.
At this stage, the functionality of all Haccp steps implemented so far is verified.
7. Record Keeping
The final stage is the documentation stage. All determinations, controls and data in the haccp application must be recorded.
When the principles we mentioned are fully implemented and the Haccp application is maintained in a healthy way, the product produced is considered a "safe product". This is very important for both the business and the end consumer. The reliability of food products that directly affect the health of the consumer also gains the attention and trust of the consumer. Haccp continues to lead the way in making life better quality for a production process and after.
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